Monday, December 30, 2019
FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of the human personality consisted of 3 parts, the Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id is the inner child. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory also separates the Id into two subcategories, Eros (the parent-loving libido) and Thanatos (the self-preservation instinct), also known as the life and death instincts, respectively. The Ego, or the Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ , is the self-awareness part of the brain. This part takes into account reality and tries to compromise between Id and the real world. The Superego, or the Ã¢â¬Å"above IÃ¢â¬ applies moral principles to the EgoÃ¢â¬â¢s solutions [McLeod, Id, Ego, Superego]. Many times this works, but sometimes these systems of judgment fail. This applies not only to people, but also to societies, as represented in The Crucible. The Id, as mentioned previously, is the need and want driven part of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche. The girls who were pretending to be ailed and bewitched are the Id of the society, acting primarily upon Thanatos, their will to live and preserve their own lives. The power of the Id, combined with the Ego, but lacking the Superego, can be a powerful force to recon with, especially in ones so young. This is evident in the part of the play when Mary is testifying in court against the girls. At first Mary is trying to persevere against them, Ã¢â¬Å"MARY: TheyÃ¢â¬Ëre sporting...! GIRLS: (Cutting her off.) TheyÃ¢â¬Ëre sporting! MARY: (Turning on them all, hysterically and stamping her feet.) Abby, stop it! GIRLS: (Stamping their feet.) Abby, stop it!Ã¢â¬ [Miller, 48] Eventually, her IdShow MoreRelatedPsychoanalytic Criticism Of Freud s Theory Of Human Personality Essay1039 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological theories of the unconscious, the desires, and the defenses. The father of psychoanalysis began his work in the 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s, treating the chaos of hysteria first, listening to his patients talk through their problems. From his studies, he came to conclusion that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is affected by their unconscious, ...the notion that human beings are motivated, even driven, by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware... (Purdue University). Freud conserved that ourRead MoreThe Theory Of Personality Psychology1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnot like you at all? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s ironic how a person personality is shaped. Personality is included in basically everyday life. Personality defines a person. Personality is like a big stew mixed with emotions, behaviors, and patterns of thought that truly define a per son. Personality Psychology is the study of these different patterns among a group of people or culture. The studies of psychology started from HippocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory that argues that personality traits are based on four different sections. ThisRead MoreTheories And Theory Of Psychosocial Development Essay1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages 1 Theories Theorist Tiffany Leaf Walden University Dr. Thomas Russo RSCH Ã¢â¬â 61007-6 Research Theory Life is full of many experiences and challenges which help individuals to grow and become better people. There has been tons of research to better understand how and why humans develop and grow the way they do. Among the many theories and therapist in the field of psychology, I have chosen psychosexual and psychosocialRead MorePsychoanalytic Theory Of Sigmund Freud824 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Look into the Psychoanalytic Theory of Sigmund Freud David Haygood Talladega College Applied Psychology 202 7/7/2017 Abstract The psychoanalytic theory by Sigmund Freud has always been argued to be one of the most controversial theories in the school of psychology. Critics have questioned how relevant the perspective of Freud is due to the fact that it holds no scientific basis. Sigmund Freuds psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactionsRead MorePsychodynamic And Humanistic Theories Of Psychology1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPsychodynamic and Humanistic Personality Theories The study of the human mind is an interesting topic to discuss about, we have many theorists that have come up with many different ideas or theories, in how to evaluate the mind of humans, two main ways to study the mind in psychology are psychodynamic approach and humanistic approach. Even though these theories are to evaluate human minds they have different views in how the mind works. In psychodynamic approach, the way the mind is viewed is thatRead MorePsychoanalytic Personality Assessment1107 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPsychoanalytic personality assessment Introduction The psychoanalytic view states that there exist inner forces outside a persons awareness, which direct the persons behavior. Modern psychology has been impacted greatly by the psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Jung, and Adler. These three psychoanalysts proposed many concepts and their theories are still been attempted. Their human mind theories changed the world. The three believed that in personality shaping childhood development and parentingRead MoreComparing The Work Of Sigmund Freud And A Neo Analytical Theorist1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Contrasting Personality Theories: Analysis of Freud and Karen Horney Yorkville University Alanna Sampson Ã¢â¬Æ' Abstract The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the work of Sigmund Freud and a neo-analytical theorist. This paper will compare the work of Freud and Karen Horney and begins with an introduction to the study of personality and an identification of the key elements in Freud and HorneyÃ¢â¬â¢s theories. The paper then moves into an analysis of where Horney and Freud would find agreementRead MoreInterview With The Personality Theorist1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMocked Interviews The purpose of this assignment is to prepare a transcript for a mocked interview with four personality theorist. The four personality theorists included in this interview are; Horney, Erikson, Jung, and Adler. In this mocked interview, one will pretend to ask each theorist a combination of questions about the viewpoints of Sigmund Freud, and his daughter, Anna Freud. In addition, each theorist will explain what impact they believe their work has had on psychology as they see itRead MoreThe Great Theories Of Modern Day Psychology895 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesINTRODUCTION Thename Sigismund Schlomo Freud probably does not ring a bell with many people unless they have taken some type of psychology class during their school years. When it comes to psychological matters, a lot is unknown by the average person onwho the founders were of the subject, or where the great theories of modern-day psychology originated from. Born in 1856 andknown byhis shortened name ofSigmund Freud,he Ã¢â¬Å" distinguishedhimself asan intellectual giantÃ¢â¬ (Rana, 1997). As a well-known psychologistRead MorePsychological ( Freudian ) Theory Research Paper1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Tabitha Notgrass Notgrass 1 Mrs. Almack AP English 1 October 2014 Psychological (Freudian) Theory Research Paper Sigmund Freud was a neurologist who became known as the father of psychoanalysis. Freud is known for his numerous theories, such as FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality (Freudian Theory). In Freudian theory, the mind is structured into two parts: the unconscious and the conscious. The unconscious mind consists of all things that are outside of our awareness such as
Sunday, December 22, 2019
INTRODUCTION Ã¢â¬Å"Leaders are people who do the right things; managers are people who do things rightÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬â Professor Warren. Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it. Ã¢â¬â Dwight D. Eisenhower. Leaders help others and themselves to do right things. They make an inspiring vision, set way, and create something new. A perfect leader is a person who creates an inspiring vision of future, motivating and inspiring others, managing the proper delivery of vision, coaching and building a team to achieve that vision. The qualities of effective leaders are good communication skills, motivating teams, bringing together strong teams, taking right risks at the right time and goal setting. Leadership is proactive, problem solving, looking forward and not getting satisfied with things as they are. People believe and admire in the leaders because they are expert in what they do. Leaders also make sure they manage the change effectively. This helps them into ensure that the changes needed to deliver the vision are smoothly implemented and affected by people support. There are three type of situations, one is the CEO of multinational company, anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s are on the battlefield and after an earthquake. CEO of a multinational company: CEO are ultimately responsible for every decision and activity of each individual from the organization, including those choices and activities of which they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s even new ones- are permitted fewShow MoreRelatedLeadership Questionnaire For Becoming A Leader1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReasons for becoming a leader vary for every individual from such as leading to become superior or for the respect that comes with being a great leader. The world is full of great leaders who strive to make their mark on the world. An effective leader focuses on value, culture and capability to lead those within an organization and journey includes the team along with mentoring a replacement in the ever-changing healthcare environment (Al-Sawai, 2013). The role as a leader brings along responsibilityRead MoreYou Have to Be a Good Manager to Be an Effective Leader1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOrganization Behavior You have to be a Good Manager to be an Effective Leader INTRODUCTION A manager is a person who supervises the work of others so that the assigned goals and targets are achieved in the most effective, efficient, and well-organized fashion (Daft 2011). A manager makes decisions for his organization, organizes, motivates, and leads its human resource, and controls its business affairs so as to achieve efficiency and superior operational performance. All the functions andRead MoreLack Of Strong Communication Skills1533 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Strong communication skills are necessary in order to coordinate daily operations which may require multiple people participating in the care of a patient. Evidence has shown that a lack of strong communication has led to negative patient outcomes and financial losses for the institution. Effective communication will help deliver the plan and staff members will know exactly what is expected off them versus trying to figure it out on their own. Good communication will also help to prevent errorsRead MoreLeading A T eam Into Change Essay1530 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Date: 12/12/2014 INTRODUCTION: A team leader is the individual one which provides direction, commands and regulation within a team, he is also a part of team but plays various role for the purpose of achieving a certain goal. An effective leader will know their team members very well as strengths, weaknesses and inspirations. Actually team leader act various roles in an organization or company .Team leader always developing a strategy for the team to reach its destiny andRead MoreProject Manager1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessummary The aim of the report is the write about the project manager. Discussion and analyzing the quality and skills that a project manager have will be on the report. There will also be the case study and analyzing if the project manager in the case study is a good or bad manager. In the first part of the main body, the report will discuss about the quality of the project manager from communication skills, enthusiasm and empathy. The competencies and managerial effectiveness will come after that. InRead MoreLeadership Skills For A Successful Leader937 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesleadership skills continue to be increasingly valuable. Without effective leadership, there would be no way for organizations to be successful Ã¢â¬â at least not in the long run. While everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal leadership style may vary, I believe there are certain qualities that are necessary for every effective leader to possess, such as competence, motivation, and integrity. Overall, the ultimate goal of a good le ader should be to set an example for others to follow. I also believe good leaders do not necessarilyRead MoreLeadership And How One Can Become A Leader1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhat is Leadership and How One Can Become a Leader How hard would it be to try to get a point across without saying one word? Back in the day people would communicate not by language but by Symbols, some of these were Cave paintings, Petroglyphs, Pictograms, Ideograms, Writing, and the Alphabet (Origins of Language). As the world went evolving we came up with a new form to communicate effectively. That is called Speech which evolves using words and combining letters to understand each other. As weRead MoreKey Aspects a Team Needs to Be Successful and Perform at Their Best1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessuccessful team requires several key aspects, to perform at their best. The team is not effective, as they do not integrate effective team procedures into their tasks. To improve their success they need to be organised and create an effective work team. To achieve this Planning and organising, Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, Quality teams, Team processes need to be employed. A successful team implements good planning puts tasks into perspectives, which involves setting goals which are able toRead MoreWhat Makes A Good Leader?1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAt its simplest definition, a leader is someone who leads other people. But what makes someone a leader? How come some people are leaders and some people are not? How can someone become a leader? Before we can examine what makes a good leader, we have to understand what is the meaning of leadership. Leadership is a topic that has interested historians and philosophers since ancient times. Introducing the expression Ã¢â¬Å"managers are people who do things right, and leaders are people who do the right thingÃ¢â¬ Read MoreLeadership Is A Good Leader And A Group1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLeadership is a process that occurs between a leader and another individual; between the leader and a group. Or between a leader and an organization, on a community, or a society; and that influences others, often by inspiring enlivening, and engaging others to participate in the achievement of goals. Leadership is a subtle art and skill. It is based on inherent qualities of the individual and developed over time, through life events and experiences that range from significant to life altering. Leadership
Friday, December 13, 2019
In replying the below inquiries you are to supply a brief analysis of the place at jurisprudence, backed with commendations of the relevant legal commissariats, case-law and commentary. Address the points tersely in such a mode as to demo that you have understood the rules that come into drama and modulate the state of affairs being described. Undertaking Manager is approached by a client who would wish to contract Project ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s services as a undertaking director. We will write a custom essay sample on Project Management Problems or any similar topic only for you Order Now Undertaking Manager would wish to restrict his exposure to amendss in position of the fact that he will necessitate to contract the services of assorted professionals to complete the occupation. How can he make that? As stated in the Civil Code 960, Ã¢â¬ËA contract is an understanding or an agreement between two or more individuals by which an duty is created, regulated, or dissolved.Ã¢â¬â¢ This means that if the Project Manager is contracted by the Client, and in bend the Project Manager contracts 3rd parties, the Project Managerstraightwill reply, in favor of the Client for the amendss that are caused by those 3rd parties that the Project would hold engaged. The primary method of understating exposure to amendss is to choose for an Indemnity insurance. This means that in instance of harm, the insurance would counterbalance the Undertaking Manager ( or the client in inquiry, straight ) . Furthermore, the insurance company on payment of the damages, would be subrogated in the rights of its client/project director, thereby it can turn against the party who is found to be responsible for the amendss. Alternatively, On the other manus, the Project Manager has two possible contractual understandings, each with different legal and practical deductions: A Contract with the client and a sub-contract with the 3rd party professional ( Ã¢â¬Ësub-contractorsÃ¢â¬â¢ ) . With a position to minimise the hazards, the latter contract should reproduce the same hazards and precautions which would hold been included in the chief understanding, i.e. The understanding between the client and undertaking director. A contract with the client for supervising the undertaking, where the client has a distinguishable contract with the 3rd party professionals ( the sub-contractors ) . To restrict exposure to amendss, option 2 is safer, but may non be acceptable from the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s point of position who himself would desire to restrict his exposure/risks. In this instance, each contract would be one where, Ã¢â¬Ëthe individual set abouting the work shall confer merely his labor or accomplishment, or that he shall besides provide the materials.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Civil Code 1663 ) . Furthermore, the Project Manager would in bend be dissolved from any incompetence by the other professionals because as stated in the Civil Code 1037, Ã¢â¬Ëwhere a individual for any work or service whatsoever employs another individual who is unqualified, or whom he has non sensible evidences to see competent, he shall be apt for any harm which such other individual may, through incompetency in the public presentation of such work or service, cause to others.Ã¢â¬â¢ In such instances, the client is considered to be a contractor, and hence is apt Ã¢â¬Ëfor the Acts of the Apostless of t he individuals employed by him.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Civil Code 1642 ) In the latter instance, if a client files for amendss against the Project Manager, said Project Manager may raise the supplication that he is non the 1 to reply for the amendss of the 3rd party sub-contractors ( since he would non hold contracted them ) and may besides name to the suit the said 3rd parties or in bend file for amendss against the sub-contractors, as stated under Article 1038 of the Civil Code Ã¢â¬ËAny individual who without the necessary accomplishment undertakes any work or serve shall be apt for any harm which, through his unskilfulness, he may do to others.Ã¢â¬â¢ In the former instance ( where the Project Manager contracts straight with the Client ) , if the client files for amendss against the Project Manager, the said Project Manager may non raise the supplication that he is non the 1 to reply for the amendss of the 3rd party sub-contractors ( since he would non hold contracted them ) . Furthermore, he may arguably NOT sell to the suit the said 3rd parties, but if found responsible ( for the Acts of the Apostless or skips of the said 3rd parties, which the client would hold to turn out anyhow ) so he MAY in bend file for amendss against the sub-contractors, as stated under Article 1038 of the Civil Code Ã¢â¬ËAny individual who without the necessary accomplishment undertakes any work or serve shall be apt for any harm which, through his unskilfulness, he may do to others.Ã¢â¬â¢ In any given instance, noteworthy in the context being discussed, the rule contemplated under Article 1138 of the Civil which states that Ã¢â¬ËWhere the understanding provides that the party who fails to transport it out shall pay a certain amount by manner of amendss, it shall non be lawful to present to the other party a greater or lesser sum.Ã¢â¬â¢ Does it do a difference if the client is a natural individual undertaking the occupation for his/her personal demands or if the client is abargainer [ SM1 ]? Why? In this instance, a differentiation between Natural [ SM2 ] and Legal individual [ SM3 ] has to be given. The natural individual is by and large a physical entity that is responsible in his ain name for any skip [ SM4 ] , unless he proves that he has contracted on behalf of others. On the other manus, a legal individual is one that is non-physical ( like for illustration a company ) . A natural individual and a legal individual have the ability to either contract in their name or on behalf of others. Both parties enjoy the ability to come in into contracts. When a Undertaking Manager is undertaking with a legal individual, he is undertaking non with persons but with the company itself, which enjoys a separate legal personality from its members/shareholders. Undertaking Manager is an designer and, apart from moving as undertaking director, will be personally responsible for the construction/ change works. He would wish to restrict his exposure for defects as best he could. How can he make this contractually? First and first, one can non take it for granted that the Project Manager is the designer, intending that if the Project Manager did non straight take portion in the programs and building of the undertaking, he/she shall non be found apt on the footing of the fact that he besides happens to be an designer by profession. Furthermore, one has the right to even diminish contractually the 15 twelvemonth clip span in instance of defects. Such timespan is given in the Civil Code ( 1638 ) , Ã¢â¬â¢If a edifice or other considerable rock work erected under a edifice contract shall, in the class of 15 old ages from the twenty-four hours on which the building of the same was completed, perish, entirely or in portion, or be in apparent danger of falling to destroy, owing to a defect in the building, or even owing to some defect in the land, the designer and the contractor shall be responsible therefor.Ã¢â¬â¢ Does it do a difference if the client is a natural individual moving in his/her personal capacity or a bargainer? As antecedently mentioned, a natural individual is by and large a physical entity that is responsible in his ain name, unless he proves that he has contracted on behalf of others. On the other manus, a legal individual ( bargainer ) [ Di5 ] is one that is non-physical ( like for illustration a company ) . There is a given that whoever contracts does so in his ain name, unless he proves that he has contracted in the name of another individual. The debitor has the duties to do it clear that he is undertaking in the name of a company. The foregoing considerations apply whether the client is a natural individual ( single or bargainer ) or a legal individual ( company ) . Undertaking Manager is engaged and in order for him to carry through his battle he issues petitions for citations to three providers of stuffs. He stipulates a cap. They all reply with a quotation mark within the cap. Has an understanding been formed? No, an understanding has non been formed. Invitations to offer occurred when the Project Manager asked for a quotation mark. If this is non accepted, no contract has been formed. Said offer is capable to acceptance until and unless that offer is accepted, there is no contract. If so, at what phase [ SM6 ]?[ Di7 ] A contract is Ã¢â¬Ëan understanding reached between two or more parties which is lawfully enforceable when executed in conformity with specific requirements.Ã¢â¬â¢ Note that contracts should be specific to the undertaking in inquiry, every bit good as reflecting the understanding between the parties in inquiry. Contracts are adhering understandings, which is why it is of great importance that all parties understand the footings entailed by said contract, including rights and duties. Every contract consists of the followers: Offer ; Credence ; Ã¢â¬ËAcceptance Ã¢â¬Ë occurs when both parties arrive to an unqualified understanding of all the offered footings. However, a period of dialogue normally occurs. The purpose of the dialogues is to present new footings and conditions and counter offers to the original offer, so as to get to an understanding that satisfies all parties. Communication of credence The credence of the contract offer occurs merely when the credence is communicated to the offerer. This includes methods like: By telephone Write If non, why? And what is required to organize the contract? No credence has been given by the Project Manager to any of the provided quotation marks. For a contract to be formed, an exchange of an offer from, in this instance the providers, and an credence from the Project Manager must happen. Note that both parties must hold the purpose to adhere themselves. Furthermore, both offer and credence must beecht Acts of the Apostless of will that manifest the relevant consent. It is deserving nil that a contract is valid despite being non written, i.e. Credence by word of oral cavity or electronic mail is besides a contract, unless the jurisprudence expressly requires that the understanding should be in composing. These necessities of offer and credence are non mentioned in the Civil Code ( unlike Italian Civil Code ) . They are specifically mentioned in the Commercial Code and Electronic Commerce Act. The civil codification ( under 966 ) merely spells what is required for the cogency of a contract: (a) Capacity of the parties to contract ; (B) The consent of the party who binds himself ; (degree Celsiuss) A certain thing which constitutes the subject-matter of the contract ; (vitamin D) A lawful consideration. The most favorable quotation mark, from A, comes with a clause saying that Ã¢â¬Å"An understanding must be made in authorship and all payments must be made in advance.Ã¢â¬ Project director writes to A accepting the quotation mark. Is this sufficient? Yes, in this instance, there is sufficient cogent evidence that a contract has been formed. An offer has been given by A, which was so accepted Ã¢â¬Ëin writingÃ¢â¬â¢ by the Project Manager, a phase of personal businesss which is so confirmed by the fact that works would later be undertaken, in pursuit of and in conformity with the same quotation mark. Undertaking director pays the monetary value and A provides the stuffs, but these are found non to be in line with the specifications requested. What is the consequence of this? What are Project ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s options at jurisprudence? When a marketer is selling building stuff, he is Ã¢â¬Ëbound to justify the thing sold against any latent defects which render it unfit for the usage for which it is intended, or which diminish its value to such an extent that the purchaser would non hold bought it or would hold tendered a smaller price..Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Civil Code Article 1424 ) When such required are non met, the undermentioned occurs: Client dissatisfaction Delaies in undertaking completion The marketer is Ã¢â¬Ëanswerable for latent defects, even though they were non known to him, unless he has stipulated that he shall non in any such instance be bound to any warranty.Ã¢â¬â¢ As a consequence of this, the Project Manager has two options at jurisprudence ; Actio Redhibitoria To return the stuff and have the monetary value repaid to him. Compensation for amendss may be besides implemented. Actio Aestimatoria To retain the stuff and have a portion of the monetary value repaid to him which shall be determined by the tribunal. Civil Code Article 1434, Ã¢â¬ËThe purchaser, even though at that place be no understanding to that consequence, is bound to pay involvement on the monetary value up to the twenty-four hours of payment at the rate of five per centper annum, randomly in the undermentioned instances: (a) if the thing sold and delivered outputs fruits or other net incomes ; (B) if, even though the thing yields no fruits or other net incomes, he has been called upon by agencies of a judicial hint to pay the monetary value ; (degree Celsiuss) if the bringing of the thing, being movable, has non taken topographic point through the mistake of the purchaser, and the marketer has called upon him, by agencies of a judicial hint, to take bringing of the thing: Provided that in the instances mentioned in paragraphs (B) and (degree Celsiuss) , involvement shall run merely from the twenty-four hours of the service of the said judicial intimatation. Undertaking director has besides engaged the services of an lineman, B. The contract stated that B had to finish the plants within two months harmonizing to a agenda of plants agreed to. Following the first month it is clear that B has non completed 1/3 of the plants he was to finish within the period of one month. It is clear to project director that B will non finish the plants within two months and now it will be possible for Project Manager to maintain to the timelines imposed on him by client merely if he hires a larger administration to make the plants alternatively of B. But these alternate service suppliers will be more expensive. What are the Project ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s options? The Project Manager has the right to register for amendss due to non-performance against the Electrician but would hold to wait that the term of the contract has expired, as follows: Termination of Contract due to non-performance, Ã¢â¬â¢ Civil Code 1640.( 1 ) it shall be lawful for the employer to fade out the contract, even though the work has been commenced. ( 3 ) If the employer has valid ground for the disintegration, he is to pay the contractor merely such amount which shall non transcend the disbursals and work of the contractor, after taking into consideration the utility of such disbursals and work to the employer every bit good as any amendss which he may hold suffered.Ã¢â¬â¢ In such instances, choosing for Termination of Contract could ensue in farther holds. One of the Project ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s chief functions is to understate amendss, and hence the option of expiration may non be feasible and commercially practical. Punishments would hold been set up contractually that the party in inquiry ( in this instance Electrician B ) , should pay a certain sum for every twenty-four hours of hold. Naturally the Undertaking director would be exposed to liability towards the client but at least he would hold safeguarded himself against the Electrician.. Who will hold to bear the addition in costs if Project Manager engages these new service suppliers? The addition in costs are to be incurred by the Electrician B. This includes the followers: Article 1135 of the Civil Code, Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦damages due to the creditor are, by and large, in regard of the loss which he has sustained, and the net income of which he has been deprived. Article 1136 of the Civil Code, Ã¢â¬â¢the debitor shall merely be apt for such amendss as were or could hold been foreseen at the clip of the agreement.Ã¢â¬â¢ Will it do a difference if Project Manager is moving as chief or agent? When a Undertaking Manager is moving as chief, he has to reply for the actions holds. If heÃ¢â¬â¢s moving as an agent for a 3rd party, he would be replying in the name of the party, provided that it is clear that the undertaking director is moving in the name of that 3rd party. Undertaking Manager requires pigment. He is approached by a individual who states that he is the local agent of an internationally celebrated industry and the said Ã¢â¬Å"agentÃ¢â¬ offers a really advantageous monetary value. Undertaking Manager orders the pigment, this is supplied and Project Manager pays for it. But before the pigment is used Project Manager sees a Notice in the newspaper stating that the international maker has nil to make with the Ã¢â¬Å"agentÃ¢â¬ and that the Ã¢â¬Å"agentÃ¢â¬ is a fraudster. Undertaking Manager does non desire to utilize the pigment as he will non be covered by the Ã¢â¬Å"international guaranteeÃ¢â¬ that was purportedly provided by the international maker. What are his options at jurisprudence? In the instance of fraud, the Project Manager has the right to register for nothingness of the understanding in inquiry. As stated in Article 981 of the Civil Code, Ã¢â¬â¢Fraud shall be a cause of nothingness of the understanding Fraud. When the ruses practised by one of the parties were such that without them the other party would non hold contracted.Ã¢â¬â¢ The debitor, which in this instance is the agent providing the pigment, is to pay Ã¢â¬Ëthe compensation in regard of the loss sustained by the creditor, and of the net income of which he was deprived, shall merely include such amendss as are the immediate and direct effect of the non-performance.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Civil Code Article 1137 ) . When the mandatary ( provider of pigment ) acts beyond the authorization given to him by the authorization, he may be found responsible for those actions in his ain name. Page1of12 How to cite Project Management Problems, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about theCritical Analysis On Apple Incs Recruitment Video. Answer: Introduction: Apple Inc is unarguably the best place to work in for those aiming to make it big in their life. Based in California, Apple Inc is a multinational technology company operating under the leadership of CEO Tim Cook. With revenue of 233 billion as in 2015, the company has been unstoppable in its quest to lead in innovative technology (Apple.com, n.d.). It is not just about making a career but being a part of something legendary in the world. Of all the big names in the field of technology, Apple has made an inimitable brand image for itself that absolutely no other company can manage to challenge. It has got it all to create and develop some of the most unimaginable products in the human history. From an era where there was no non-physical means to send a message across, Apple has created some of the most unthinkable gadgets to transform the life of millions of people around the world. Currently, Apple delves into a wide array of industrial activities including designing, manufacturing and marketing of mobiles, computers, and portable digital music players along with a huge number of related software and services (Johnson et. al., 2012). It does not come as a surprise that so many young people dream of getting hired in the technology behemoth. The company has been branded as one of the most innovating workplaces in the world. There is absolutely no doubt about the fact that Apple is one of the most challenging places to work for. There are high expectations, often unreasonable, on every single one working under Apple Inc., yet people aspire to work for them. In fact, Steve Jobs had been a tough task master in the company, even for at the top most positions. Yet, there is something remarkable about Apple that people aspire to work in Apple. Let us evaluate Apples possible recruitment strategy to get a deep insight of their corporate environment. This video has demonstrated the generic feel of the employees working in the company. Apple is a big brand name and employees inside them feel the weight of it on their shoulders. Over the years, Apple has opened plenty of jobs for skilled people, both in and outside the US. Even though employment in the US has stagnated, the company has added 52K in the last 10 years (Apple.com, n.d.). Apple believes in pushing the envelope more than any other company in the world. Their zeal and zest to do the unthinkable has attracted some of the most talented and gifted minds over the years. The company believes in persistent efforts against the rising problems to ensure that the end product is something meaningful. Apple believes in working in small teams to do something great. It is done to ensure that every single individual contributes to something valuable. Collaborative work ensures that everyone pitches in to give their best performance to refine the end result. As innovation has become an inevitable part of companys operations, it is essential that people with varied skills contribute to perfect different aspects of the end product or service. Apple believes in cross collaboration between different groups to get the best result. Cross-functional teams are found to be productive for the fact that they bring in their best on table to create something iconic. As per Maltz and Kohli (2000), cross functional teams are groups intended to dither out disagreements arising in goals, language and processes which apparently need cross-functional integration. Such groups ensure that people with distinct expertise collate for facilitating temporary tasks including development of new products (Turkula inen Ketokivi, 2012), or permanent tasks to ensure that operational processes are integrated (Pagell, 2004). All the team members must keep conflicts at bay in order to jointly achieve effective results. Since innovation is detachable part of Apple products, it has been important that employees work in the direction to attain the unfeasible tasks. Apple considers innovation as a crucial object of their survival and development, and this philosophy has been successfully etched into the corporate culture (Tim Cook, 2012). The launch of iPhone made the company reinforce the same in the mind of public. Steve Jobs introduced iPhone as a three in one device with the ability to be a cell phone, internet communicator and a widescreen iPod (Barrett, 2012). In this process of strategically innovating, Apple started the transformation from just being a maker of consumer electronics to a provider of terminal-based content (Hess, 2006). Such corporate environment allows employees to open their latent talent and make the best use of it to achieve professional satisfaction. Thus in the process of creating something really big, talented individuals end up achieving professional excellence whilst giv ing their share of contribution. Such is the vibrancy and vibes in the working environment that employees engage in creating meaningful products to transform the world. Employees feel engaged with the companys mission and vision to religiously invest their best skills and potential to give excellent performance. Robinson et al. (2004) stated that employee engagement reflects a positive attitude demonstrated by employees towards the growth and success of the organization. An engaged employee is more productive and dedicated towards delivering good results. There have been many researches done in order to establish the positive association between employee engagement and organizational performance. Apple has employees who are passionate about their job. For them, its not about earning big bucks but being a part of something so magnanimous like Apple. They are inherently excited and driven to solve the problems and creating something path breaking instead of falling in line with what all other companies are doing. Of all, it could be the charm of co-found of Apple, Steve Jobs, who had the knack of selecting the right people for the right job. The selected candidates need not be the top scholars or academicians but got to have the right talent to match the requirements of the job. Other thing that is common among Apple employees is their ability to adapt to uncertain situations at a faster pace than others. Change is a constant thing and some people are just easy to embrace it than many others. At Apple, employees are put through difficult situations to make them flexible enough mould themselves in different job roles. In their quest to create and recreate any new technology or process, employees are subjected to navigate through new routes. Apple has created such a dynamic work environment conducive to innovation and flexibility that employees end up adapting themselves to it in a very short span of time. The video reflects the popular perception of the people outside the Apple. It goes on to show the amount of perseverance and mental acumen goes into designing and creating simple objects of technological innovation. An iPhone, iPad or Mac may appear very simple to use but there is a lot goes into making it, right from conceptualizing to the end product in the hand of the consumers. Its the persistence to keep refining to reach the zenith of perfection that keeps the employees challenging themselves to give something of value or meaning to the world. This video has demonstrated some the desired skills and qualities Apple employees have or have developed over the time to imbibe the enigmatic corporate culture. References PAGELL, M. (2004). Understanding the factors that enable and inhibit the integration of operations , purchasing and logistics. Journal of Operations Management, 22, 459487. TURKULAINEN, V., Ketokivi, M. (2012). the real benefits? Cross-functional integration and performance : what are the real benefits? International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 32(4), 447467. MALTZ, E. Kohli, A. K. (2000). Reducing Marketing s Conflict With Other Functions: The Differential Effects of Integrating Mechanisms. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 28(4), 479492. Robinson D., Perryman S., Hayday S. (2004). The Drivers of Employee Engagement Report 408, Institute for Employment Studies, UK. Barrett. , Paul, M. S. Adam, B. (2012). Peter Bloomberg Business week, (4293), 32- 33. Cook, T. (2012). Tim Cook one year on: hows Apple doing?. Retrieved from https://www.techradar.com/us/news/computing/apple/tim-cook-one-year-onhows-apple-doing-1093206/page:2#articleContent Hess, M. N.M. Coe (2006). Making Connections: Global Production Networks, Standards, and Embeddedness in the Mobile-Telecommunications Industry, Environment and Planning, (38), 12051227 Johnson, K., Li, Y., Phan, H., Singer, J., Trinh, H. (2012). The Innovative Success that is Apple, Inc. About - Job Creation - Apple. Apple. Retrieved from https://www.apple.com/about/job-creation/
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Is love Worth Preserving Love is a universal feeling or emotion and every human on earth throughout history has experienced in one form or the other. Many plays, drama or stories are surrounded by betrayal, hurt; pain, trials, triumphs, wars, passion, forgiveness, commitment and romance. However In the play Ã¢â¬Å"Sakuntala and The Ring of RecollectionÃ¢â¬ this is a perfect example of what seems to be a more dramatic courtship tragedy. The story portrays romance between king Dusyanta and a sages daughter Sakuntala both strive to meet and reconcile the conflicting objectives of Indian life; the struggle to balance the need for power and hierarchy with undeniable feelings of passion. King Dusyanta while hunting in forest happens meet the most perfect and organic of all women his ever seen; Sakuntala a beautiful young lady living in a hermitage in the forest. King Dusyanta overwhelmed with Feelings and love, so strong that he desired sakuntala as a wife immediately ignoring his royal duties as king. We will write a custom essay sample on Is Love Worth Preserving or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The king courts her and marries her in a simple ceremony witnessed only by sakuntalaÃ¢â¬â¢s friends. The king promised to return by offering a ring to signify his commitment. Then Dusyanta leaves for his capital to attend to his royal duties, with the understanding that he will soon return to and take Sakuntala with him for a proper ceremony. Unfortunately, Sakuntala, lost in thoughts of king Dusyanta fails to take notice of Sage Durvasa who comes visiting the hermitage. Angered by this, Durvasa puts a curse on sakuntala that the person she is thinking about will forget her completely. The only remedy to make Dusyanta remember Sakuntala and their marriage is to show him the ring that he had given to Sakuntala. Sakuntala now must go to Dusyanta and show him the ring so that he will again remember her. But unfortunately the ring she is carrying with her fall into a river on her way to Dusyanta and cannot be retrieved. Thus when Sakuntala faces Dusyanta he is unable to recall her. All her pleadings with Dusyanta and efforts to remind him are ineffective in bringing back memories of his commitment. Sakuntala has no alternative but to return. By series of chances the ring that fell in river was found by a fisherman and then presented to Dusyanta, through these he remembers all the past event forgotten. But it is too late by then. Dusyanta is not able to find Sakuntala, who has moved to some other place and has given birth in the meantime to a son, who is named Bharat. Many years later when Bharat is still a child, Dusyanta happens to firs see Bharat playing with a lion cob and then meets Sakuntala and reunited Sakuntala ring of recollection presents the audience with two characters who begin as reasonably autonomous beings but who gradually compromise aspects of their identities in order to complement one another. In doing so, the author suggests that every individual is incomplete without a partner, and he depicts the ideal male and female characters during Indias classical age. Works Cited David, Damrosch, and David L. Pike. The longman Anthopology of world literature, volume A; Sakuntala and the Ring of Recollection. The Ancient world, second edition.
Monday, November 25, 2019
I. Issue or problem This article states that Japan is in the middle of a trade surplus gaining 95.6 percent from last year to 902.0 yen (7.33 billion). Economists believe that because of September 11th, shutdowns of key ports especially in the U.S. have caused major contributions shrinking the trade gap. II. Summary The article goes on state that because of these key ports closing, billions of dollars of trade were lost, and a major trade surplus has occurred. It states that exports were up to 14.3 percent from a year earlier, and imports were up to 3.9 percent. This shows clearly the gap between Japans exports and imports. Forecasters are hoping that a slow U.S. economy, and a stronger yen point to a weaker surplus in the months ahead. Although this problem is still occurring it shows in monthly forecasts that since a peak high in July, forecasts are showing a declining trend. It states that Japans exports have been slowing, pushing towards a more steady economy. It also goes on to say that net exports made a negative contribution to japans economic growth in the middle months of July-September quarter for the first time in a year, and that many economists expect this trend to continue. Forecasters are hoping that as winter sets in, the pressure on policy makers will help resolve this is sue of economic recession. It also states that in October, forecasters showed signs of economic recovery due to inflation. III. Key concepts Some of the key concepts stated in this article. First, trade surplus, which we have discussed, is when nations exports of goods exceed its imports of goods, and a trade deficit is vice versa. Also, in our book, we have shown Japan currency (yen) compared to the American dollar. Also, exports and imports, which deal with national trade. Also, net exports which is the difference between exports and imports showing a negative balance. Lastly it states that Japans recovery will partly due to deflatio... Free Essays on Japans Trade Surplus Free Essays on Japans Trade Surplus I. Issue or problem This article states that Japan is in the middle of a trade surplus gaining 95.6 percent from last year to 902.0 yen (7.33 billion). Economists believe that because of September 11th, shutdowns of key ports especially in the U.S. have caused major contributions shrinking the trade gap. II. Summary The article goes on state that because of these key ports closing, billions of dollars of trade were lost, and a major trade surplus has occurred. It states that exports were up to 14.3 percent from a year earlier, and imports were up to 3.9 percent. This shows clearly the gap between Japans exports and imports. Forecasters are hoping that a slow U.S. economy, and a stronger yen point to a weaker surplus in the months ahead. Although this problem is still occurring it shows in monthly forecasts that since a peak high in July, forecasts are showing a declining trend. It states that Japans exports have been slowing, pushing towards a more steady economy. It also goes on to say that net exports made a negative contribution to japans economic growth in the middle months of July-September quarter for the first time in a year, and that many economists expect this trend to continue. Forecasters are hoping that as winter sets in, the pressure on policy makers will help resolve this is sue of economic recession. It also states that in October, forecasters showed signs of economic recovery due to inflation. III. Key concepts Some of the key concepts stated in this article. First, trade surplus, which we have discussed, is when nations exports of goods exceed its imports of goods, and a trade deficit is vice versa. Also, in our book, we have shown Japan currency (yen) compared to the American dollar. Also, exports and imports, which deal with national trade. Also, net exports which is the difference between exports and imports showing a negative balance. Lastly it states that Japans recovery will partly due to deflatio...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Innovation and Business Growth - Essay Example Where do the other ideas or research efforts go They get into the vast Knowledge Management databases which is available to the organization as part of core business knowledge for future reference. All these products are a result of dollar intensive and highly sophisticated research which actually delves into the minds of end-consumers in a very concerted effort to focus the mind of the consumer on the company's products, services and processes. It was a quirk of an idea to increase the diameter of the tooth paste tube's nozzle by a millimeter in an effort to increase annual sales of tooth paste at Unilever. This of course caught like a wild fire and is much quoted as an example of business smartness and innovation. In this case, the above stated ides is t R & D for a global FMCG company. All it took the Australian phone company to reduce its bleed on local calls was introduction of a lead ring into the handsets of telephones. This lead ring fatigued the hands of the users who started disconnecting calls much earlier than the previous endless hours of conversation. A simple but a powerful idea directly impacted the network utilization as well as bottom lines of the Australian telephone network. That's R & D for a large telecom operator (Bono, 2003). There was this person who stuck post-it sheets with the names of the car owners on the insides of the fuel cap covers and this person spoke to each and every customer using their names. Sales increased dramatically. This person was trying to leverage customer experience at the gas station, researched to find out that people love to be addressed by their names. That's nothing but R & D for a micro enterprise (B, 2006). Xerox that spent billions of dollars in getting new products to the market place failed miserably and was bleeding at the point of machine replacements in 72 hours. As part of their service level agreement, Xerox innovated its post sales service delivery mechanism to come up with almost instantaneous resolution of over 98% of customer complaints thereby reducing the bleed due to machine replacement promise to almost nil. Today various Corporates are investing billions of dollars to leverage the R & D knowledge at the market place and this paper will specifically look at the innovations at Unilever - Unipath, Xerox - PARC and Ntt - MBD. A Product/Service - Its importance Most of the organizations, once having introduced a product / service into the market place, leverage of two different types of research. The first type of research is to find out what the consumer wants or even has in his mind. The second type of research is to how to move the current product line or introduce a new product line to meet those expectations in the mind of the consumer. It is more often in the second type of research work, which new product identification happens. Also it is in the second type of research that companies often file for patents; develop knowledge that may be leveraged in future. Marketing begins with the identification of consumer needs and wants, and culminates with successfully
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Crusades - Essay Example Origins of the crusades. There are many origins of the Crusades. The Crusades movement is a series of religious wars. The Popes wrote encyclicals and gave orations for the necessity to implement the crusades as ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s antidote to the Turks and other Muslim invaders1. In 1464, Pope Pius personally went to Ancona to lead the CrusadeÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to retain Constantinople from the Muslims. Pope Pius died from the plague while waiting for the crusade army to arrive2. The Pope and the Catholic Church approved the CrusadesÃ¢â¬â¢ war strategy. The main goal of the crusades was to get back access to the holy places. The Crusades had political influence over a significant part of Europe, the Western sector. The CrusadesÃ¢â¬â¢ soldiers made a solemn vow to the Pope that they will fight for the Cross of Christ. Consequently, the Pope gave each soldier a cross. The cross symbolized the soldier as a soldier of the Church. In 1280, to ensure Muslim success over the crusade a rmies, Kalavun, the Muslim leader, took advantage of petty disagreements between the different Crusade armies within Jerusalem. Those in Acre supported King Charles and those in Tyre supported King Hugh of Cyprus. Kalavun entered into different treaties with different cities. Kalavun was counting on the factionalism to fit the different parts of the kingdom against one another3. The Ottoman Turks focused their war on the doorsteps of the European countries. Previously, the crusades focused on recovering the Holy Land from the Muslim invaders. During the 1370s, European Christians had to fight the Ottoman Turks who were invading the European nations. The theme was refocused from the Holy Land to reducing the continuing spread of the Muslim faith in Europe. In 1354, the Turks occupied Gallipoli and started entering Europe. In 1361, the Ottoman Turks conquered several European areas, including Bulgaria and most of Greece. The Crusades had economic influence over several parts of Europe , the Western sector4. The best-funded Crusade was the Crusade of St. Louis5. The Christian pilgrims were being persecuted by the Muslims on their way to Jerusalem. With the Christian lands being gobbled up by the Muslims, the economic power of the Pope was also reduced. To recover its former economic power, the Pope, especially Pope Urban II, launched the Crusades to recover the lands from the Muslim invaders. Maalouf insists the Crusades were a drain on the Christian nationÃ¢â¬â¢s coffers. Money was needed to pay for the war to proceed6. Pope Urban II made a strong appeal to all Christian rulers in Europe to launch attacks against the Muslim armies. The Pope admonished the Muslim infidelsÃ¢â¬â¢ desecration of the Holy Land, especially Jerusalem. The Pope described the horrific atrocities and damages of the Muslim infidels plundering of the Holy Land and attacks on the innocent Christian pilgrims going to Jerusalem. In 1368, King Peter tried to raise another Crusade. When King Peter returned to Cyprus, the local barons were mad at the huge amount of money spent on PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s crusade. Peter was finally assassinated during his sleep. The people of Europe decried the treachery of the Cyprus traitors and mourned the loss of their crusadeÃ¢â¬â¢s King7. When King Louis, the Crusade leader, was captured by the Muslim armies, Turan-Shah, a Muslim leader, released the hostages in exchange for 800,000 bezants. In addition, the Crusade armies had to surrender Damietta to the Muslim rulers. The French paid 400,000 bezants to Mamluks for the release of King Louis8. The Crusades had social influence over many parts of Europe, the Western sector. The people rallied to the Crusades. The Christian people
Monday, November 18, 2019
ASSIGNMENT 2 - Statistics Project Example ii) To the simple regression model in part (i), add the variables , rooms, baths, and age, where intst is distance from the home to the interstate, area is square footage of the house, land is the lot size in square feet, rooms is total number of rooms, baths is number of bathrooms, and age is age of the house in years. Now, what do you conclude about the effects of the incinerator? Explain why (i) and (ii) give conflicting results. The coefficient for the incinerator is 0.05539 showing a decrease from the previous value of 0.36488; addition of more relevant variables to the model results to a decrease in the coefficient value of the initial variable. Yes the square of is significant when you add it to the model from part (iii); this is because we observe an increase in the value of adjusted R-squared from 0.7475 in part (ii) to 0.7642 in part (iii) a) Most households use air conditioning powered by electricity to cool down the house but use other forms of energy (gas, oil, etc.) to warm up the house. Given this piece of information, what would you predict for the sign and significance of the coefficients if electricity usage were regressed on a households heating requirements and cooling requirements? Run a regression of electricity usage (kwh) on heating degree-days (hd16) and cooling degree-days (cd16). Are your results consistent with your predictions? Test whether the coefficients are statistically different than each other at 1%. We would expect the electricity usage to go up during cooling as such the sign for the cooling would be positive. On the contrary, we would expect the electricity usage to come down during the heating and as such the sign for the heating is expected to be negative. The p-value for the test is 0.000 (a value less than 1% significance level), we therefore reject the null hypothesis and conclude that
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Business Of Unilever Nigeria Plc Commerce Essay Unilever has built its business on understanding and responding to the needs of its consumers globally. Its corporate goal is to add value and quality to the basic aspects of its consumers satisfaction which adds value and srength to the consumers life. Unilever Nigeria Plc, came into life as Lever Brothers (West Africa) Ltd on 11th April, 1923 by Lord Lever Hulme, but the companys antecedents have to be traced back to his existing trading interests in Nigeria and West Africa generally, and to the fact that he had since the 19th century been greatly involved with the soap business in Britain. Unilever Nigeria started with the soap manufacturing company, and is today one of the oldest surviving manufacturing organizations in Nigeria. Their Products: Unilever produces a lot of products, namely; Food brands (e.g., Knorr, Lipton, Blue band, Beverages) Home care brands (e.g., Shampoo, Toothpaste, Soap, Moisturising cream) Personal care brands ( e.g., Lux, Vaseline, Sunsilk, Omo, Pears) Nutrition Health, hygiene and beauty Unilever food solutions Your suggestions Latest brand news The success of this business is as a result of the sound relationship which they have established with the consumers in the local cultures and markets creating products that help them transform in life. In sustaining these successes, they ensured to maintain the highest and sound standards of mutual behavior towards their employees, consumers, customers, communities and operating environment as a whole. Talking about their brands, they produce domestic goods which they know from the onset that people would really need such goods because, it enhances the daily living of people. For this reason, they are committed to meet the everyday needs of people everywhere in Nigeria. In addition, because they are have International experience and support, it enables them to consistently develop brands, which raise the worth of life. In essence, most people in Nigeria always have their products at home. 1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The PESTLE Analysis is an analytical tool used to evaluate and identify the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental factors in a given economy that would affect the operation of an organization. According to Kotler (1999) PESTLE Analysis is a useful strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline, business position and direction for Operations. This Analysis also allows an Organization to have a competitive advantage over other firms in the industry. Political Factor: This factor is always necessary to be evaluated, in order to know the favorability of the political climate to market growth and development in a particular country, such as the Government Stability, Taxation Policy, and Attitude of the Government towards foreign investment. Economic Factor: This Economic framework is used to measure the state of an economy by considering the GDP, the wage level, interest rate, the disposable income, unemployment rate, business cycle and the economic growth in the country. Socio Cultural Factor: This indicator is used to measure the rate and growth of population, changes in the taste and preferences of consumers, the changes in the lifestyle of consumers and the level of education of the populace which would have a great effect on the demand of the products or services provided by the organization. Technological Factor: This Framework is used to evaluate the level of Government spending on Research and Development institutes and the efforts of government and private sector efforts towards technological advancement. Legal Factor: This is used to know the laws and regulations that exist in the environment an organization is operating such as the employment, health and safety laws. Environmental Factor: This is used to understand the various environmental laws, natural resources available and the prevailing weather condition in the economy. 1.3 ANALYSIS Using Porters models (Kippenberger, 1998; Haberberg and Rieple, 2001), but to examine it in addition to other strategic frameworks ofÃ SWOTÃ andÃ PEST analysis. In trying to analyze the strategies, it will be fair to know what Business Strategy is all about. Business strategy to my own understanding is a way in which organisations view the future, the extent to which the business is heading to, the plan, set targets, etc. The basic aim of strategy is to move the business forward, it is not all about making profit alone, but how the business can succeed eventually. In other words, it will establish strategic direction, and implement those strategies, all in an effort to satisfy key stakeholders. Robert and Caldart (2009) view strategy as a way a firm can only hypothesize about the implications of different possible initiatives and learn more about them through interaction with other actors such as competitors, regulators, customers, suppliers, and partners in its competitive landscape. In these situations, managers face the extremely difficult problem in making decisions that demand a long-term perspective, committing the firm in the long-run within a competitive landscape that is unlikely to stand still. We call these decisions strategic decisions. Porter E.M. (1996) Views strategy as being flexible, companies must be flexible to respond rapidly to competitive and market changes aggressively to gain efficiencies and achieve best practice. Strategy to him is total quality management, benchmarking, time-based competition, re-engineering, change management. From this definition, it is believed that, for any business to grow there should be freedom, ability to initiate plans on how to move the business forward. Ellis Williams (1993) expressed that, It indicates the perspectives for business to achieve better advantages, it elaborates tactics for business to face challenges, it points out the trends and competitions around the business. Business consists of two main aspects, namely external factor and internal factor. From the definitions given by these scholars, it entails that, strategy is seen as a means of making business to strive and to achieve a defined goal through vision, hard work, through perseverance that will lead to transformation. 1.4 Application IINTERNAL FACTORS: Internal factors include information and communication as one of the internal control components. The factors are systems used to control financial, reporting and accounting systems in an organisation. Smooth flow of information and communication across and within the organisation is influenced by the nature of the working relationship within the organisation at all levels. The working relationship coordinates organisations activities to achieve specific goal. When effective working relationship exists in an organisation, delegation of responsibilities is achieved. The main internal factors which are considered to uphold the organisation are the managers, employees, capitals, and materials. Managers: Since the inception of Unilever, there were constantly sound and visional managers succeeding the affairs of Unilever and respectively improving the management of Unilever. Employees: Unilever has massive employees who perform specific duties to move the organisation forward. Unilever has the worlds top makers of packaged which has products like shampoo, deodorants, soap, Vaseline, tea, and frozen foods over the world. The company sells its goods in over 150 countries and has returns of approximately $46 billion (Ã £31,5bn). Unilever controls subsidiaries in at least 90 countries and employs 295,000 (in 2000) people. Unilever is one of the worlds top three firms after Nestle and Kraft and the worlds second largest packaged consumer goods company behind Procter Gamble. Capital: Unilever is one of the oldest surviving manufacturing organisations in Nigeria today. The organisation is well known with its products all over the world, its food brand, home care products, Unilever food solution, personal care brands, nutrition, etc, Unilever is recognised as the worlds most valuable brand. THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT The word external simply means outside that is the activities which takes place outside the business environment. The external environment of any organisation is a large and complex place. (Capon, 2009. P.5) for the sake of this work, we shall take a look at PESTEL analysis of the organisation, which includes Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Environmental, Legal elements. Political Environment: The government is currently focusing on encouraging the local manufacture of finished and semi-finished goods in the country.Ã ThisÃ will be aÃ major advantage for interested local investors as it provides them with a playing ground for building their business.Ã Currently, local manufacturers face a number of challenges including: High Input Cost,Ã Lack of petrochemical plant,Ã High cost of production/distribution,Ã Customs administration and port related issues,Ã Common External Tariff (CET) and issue of competitiveness Security of life property Weak legal frameworkÃ Although, there are various incentives in place to boost local manufacture the high transaction costs resulting from above make local manufacturing uncompetitive with the outside world.Ã Unilever, as a matter of policy, set a standard as to the way of tackling political issues. In the 1960s, many countries began to nationalise foreign firms which also affected Unilever. There were persistent calls for local equity participation in foreign firms; many companies were subject to local control on prices, imports, and employment of expatriate. An example is UAC, a subsidiary of Unilever, whose operation was in many African countries like Cameroun, Ghana, Ivory Coast, including Nigeria, was focused on as its profit margin and the rate of easy remittance of profit to its Anglo-Dutch parent was enormous. Nationalising UAC hampered Unilevers control over the market where UAC operates. Economic Factor: GDP real growth rate:Ã 3.8% (2009 est.)Ã 5.3% (2008 est.)Ã 6.4% (2007 est.)Ã Year GDP real growth rate Rank Percent Change Date of Information 2003 3.00 % 105 2002 est. 2004 7.10 % 25 136.67 % 2003 est. 2005 6.20 % 44 -12.68 % 2004 est. 2006 6.90 % 43 11.29 % 2005 est. 2007 5.30 % 90 -23.19 % 2006 est. 2008 6.40 % 66 20.75 % 2007 est. 2009 5.30 % 78 -17.19 % 2008 est. 2010 3.80 % 44 -28.30 % 2009 est. Source:Ã CIA World Factbook This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. GDP (purchasing power parity):Ã $353.2 billion (2009 est.)Ã $340.3 billion (2008 est.)Ã $323.1 billion (2007 est.)Ã note:Ã data are in 2009 US dollars This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nations GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Banks PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The differences between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the wealthy industrialized countries are generally much smaller (CIA World Fact book)Ã In Nigeria there was uncertainty about duties to be paid by companies due to inflation and fluctuation of currency. The effect on Unilever was a decrease in profit in 2005 compared to 2004, though there was increase in turnover. In 2004 and 2005 the profit after tax were =N= 2.167 billion (naira) and =N= 1.616 billion (naira) respectively, while in the turnover in 2004 and 2005 were =N= 28.6 billion (naira) =N= 33.4 billion (naira) respectively, which indicates increase in turnover but decrease in profit. Also the low per capital of people affects Unilevers market. Over 30% of Africa population lives on less than $ 1 per day. Socio-cultural Factor: Looking at the social factor of Unilever, their main focus is to add beauty to life, they ensure that they meet the needs of consumer on daily basis Such needs are; nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help someone feel good, look good and get more out of life. Unilever can make products that help give children a good start and be healthy for longer time. Their brands are also involved in a number of social initiatives to promote the importance of playing sports. Unilever has a platform and ground to improve vitality worldwide through its global scale and its interactions with consumers. Every day, 150 million consumers use Unilever brands. They use them to feel really good. Health and Welfare Concerning the area of health, Unilever has the credit to make people feel very healthy because they have good food that establishes their satisfaction. Soya is another plant-derived ingredient with an excellent nutritional profile. It is cholesterol-free, and a good source of protein, vitamins and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. It has modest cholesterol lowering potential Unilever Brand Unilever brand is superior and sound brands to help add value to the lives of people in general.Unilever Nigeria is a leading manufacturer of Oral care products such as Close up Fresh Red Toothpaste, Close-Up Extended Protection Toothpaste, Close Up Expert and Popular Toothbrushes. From the launch of Close Up Red Gel toothpaste in 1975. Technological Factor: The basic aim of technological factor is that, it enhances quick awareness to the general public through the use of internet facilities, radio, television etc which promotes the marketing aspect of the business. Unilever attract people with their advertisements, another strategy they use is e-commerce. Unilever wants to step up the use of the Internet in order to improve brand communication/marketing and on-line selling to simplify business-to-business transactions throughout the supply chain. Legal Factor: Though Nigeria has a weak legal structure generally, it has a Parastatal called Nigeria Agency for Food Drugs Control (NAFDAC) that regulates activities of multinational companies that are into manufacturing of consumables like foods, Beverages and Detergents. Unilever are committed to providing consumers with products that are consistent in quality, safe in use and free from adverse effects at all times. These are achieved by: 1. Fostering a consumer safety structure throughout the company by establishing systems and processes that will guarantee the well being of their consumers. 2. Complying with all legal requirements in the management of consumer safety. 3. Implementing an effective consumer complaints mechanism, to monitor, investigate and deal with complaints from the trade. 4. With all these precautions, they are continuously ascertaining that their products and processes meet the highest standards of quality and safety. Environmental Factor: UnileverÃ Nigeria takes the responsibility of raising the quality of life of people in the operating environment through the quality of their brands and contributions to communities in which they operate. Talking about the environment, it explains the weather, temperature and the climatic condition of the environment which the business operates, in most cases, when the weather condition is good, it favors the business itself. Unilever is a market that is known globally and its market has been successful all over the world, due to this awareness, its brand is well appreciated. Porters Five Forces: Understanding the nature of each of these forces gives organizations the necessary insights to enable them to formulate the appropriateÃ strategiesÃ to be successful in their market (Thurlby, 1998). Rivalry: Rivalry in any business outfit is inevitable, when a business should have its rivals, it motivates them to improve more in their products in other to attract more attention to consumers. The intensity of rivalry, which is the most obvious of the five forces in anÃ industry, Unilever has been more dominant in market compare to Nestle. Barriers to Entry: The threat of new entrants is usually based on the market entry barriers. In contrast, entry barriers exist whenever it is difficult or not economically feasible for an outsider to replicate the incumbents position (Porter, 1980b; Sanderson, 1998) Suppliers: The threat that substitute products pose to an industrys profitability depends on the relative price-to-performanceÃ ratiosÃ of the different types of products or services to which customers can turn to satisfy the same basic need. Customers: Kippenberger (1998) states that it is often useful to distinguish potential buyer power from the buyers willingness or incentive to use that power, willingness that derives mainly from the risk of failure associated with a products use. In any business organisation, Buyer Power is a force that influence the value established by anÃ industry. Ã The most important aspect of buyer power is the size and the concentration of customers. Other factors are the extent to which the buyers are informed. Substitutes: as the name implies, substitute products are usually many in the market and vast numbers of substitutes are available, supplier power is seen as a mirror image of the buyer power. In other to convince customers to buy products at different prices in the value created for each of those buyers usually indicates that the market is characterised by high supplier power and at the same time by low buyer power (Porter, 1998). Bargaining power of suppliers exists in the following situations: Where the switching costs are high (switching from one Internet provider to another); High power ofÃ brandsÃ (McDonalds,Ã British Airways,Ã Tesco); Possibility of forward integration of suppliers (Brewers buying bars); Fragmentation of customers (not in clusters) with a limited bargaining power (Gas/PetrolÃ stations in remote places). 4. SWOT ANALYSIS: SWOT analysis to my own understanding is a way to analyze the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a business environment. It explains the purpose of the business and if there are any lapses or pot holes, the management is liable to provide solutions. The table below summarises the SWOT analysis of Unilever Nigeria Strength: Unilever Nigeria is recognised as a global company which has its products all over the world. It has strong brand portfolio and sound relationship with retailers basically and economies of scale. Strong roots in local markets and first-hand knowledge of the local culture. Weakness:Unileverweakness is the dual leadership not connecting with customers and secondly, Inefficient management for RD the inability to maximize. Opportunities: Unilever has the opportunity of increasing need for healthy products and changing consumer preferences by adding value to their daily needs. Threats: Unilever encounter decrease in revenues and strong competition, increasing store brands. They also encounter Tougher Business Climate and exchange rates. 1. Core Competences: A core competency is a way in which a business handles the affairs of the organisation. In other words, the organisation makes advancements to the growth of its business. In core competence, it is not usually easy for competitors to imitate, take for example, in the area of branding, the Logo of a company, and their style of doing things etc it is usually difficult to imitate. The core competence of Unilever is that, it can provide competitive advantage in its strong brand portfolio, strong relationship retailers. Brand is an asset of a company, it helps to distinguish companies product just as my lecturer Mr. John rightly said, it is the brand and logo of a company that promotes the market to competing products to help sales and capture the market. 2. Global perspectives Unilever is an organisation known globally and it has made impact to so many peoples lives, their products have spread abroad, they have gainfully employed millions of people and their products have been sold massively across the globe. Its global factor is achieving its growth and objectives, looking at how Unilever has pushed the business toward global approach is focused towards new opportunities, this could be traced back to how Unilever started, viewing this from the historical perspective of the company. In 2002, Unilever initiated a procurement centre in Shangai and China, this was to increase opportunities for Chinese raw materials providers. Unilever also carried out research and development to be able to ascertain new product and have basic knowledge to introduce to new market, these activities were meant to boost Unilever global business. Another factor Unilever adopted is in the area of brand, they did this to create awareness across border synergies in manufacturing and marketing. In other to accomplish this task, it started in 1999 when it launched the Heart Brand logo of ice cream product, this was meant to enhance its products. This idea was carried out to capture integration amongst subsidiaries to facilitate control centralisation. Conclusion: Bye and large, the organisation is in a very good position to continue growing. The history of Unilever is really amazing because, it started with the soap production and gradually, it grew up to producing diverse products today which is really enhancing the lives of people. In this work, I established the following which include thus: The History of Unilever Nigeria The theoretical Framework The Analysis, internal and external factors The five forces (Porter) SWOT Analysis and Core competences and finally, Global perspectives
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Welfare and Social Responsibility Ã Welfare. Read that word to yourself and ask what popular images surround it. The first thing is probably women and children. This one is correct, because 97% of AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children, the federal "welfare" program) is made up of women and children. Young women? Not really-the average age of a mother receiving welfare is 29, and only 7.6% are under the age of 20. Is she black? Maybe, because the composition of the welfare roles is about the same percentage black and white. More kids than she can count? The average welfare family has 2.9 members. That means a single mom would have 1.9 children (fewer than the national average). Forever "dependent?"-the average length of a stay on welfare is 22 months. We certainly think that they don't work. Without bringing up the question of why raising children is not considered work, the average AFDC benefit plus food stamps still is only 69% of the poverty line. Women on welfare are constantly working to make up that differ ence. Do we think of welfare as expensive? AFDC represents just over 1% of the national budget. If welfare is not about young women having lots of babies and living their life off the generosity of the state, and if it's a minuscule part of the federal budget, why have Republicans chosen it as their pilot issue? Why, when our Federal Reserve is raising interest rates and attempting to maintain an unemployment rate of 6.2%, and when a job at minimum wage would still leave a mother with two children 23% below the poverty line, is entrance into the paid workforce being pushed as the panacea for poverty? If we are serious about getting people to work we need relevant training programs, child care provisions, and efforts at job creation. These at least were discussed in the Clinton plan, if the plan was in many other ways as punitive and insubstantial as the Republican plan. The Republican ideology is particularly insidious because it shifts the entire frame of debate from the structural to the moral. It implies, even states, that if those people would just clean up their morals and stop being so lazy that they could have a place in the American Dream. Today welfare moms are understood to be the symbol for all that is morally wrong with America.